Boston Women's Pentagon Action was a local chapter of the Woman's Pentagon Action, a decentralized, national feminist organization focused on anti-military, environmental, and social activism. The Women's Pentagon Action was born out of a 1980 meeting of activist women in the Northeastern United States. Concerned with the threat of nuclear proliferation, the Women's Pentagon Action was formed to organize and lead protests advocating human rights and non-violence. In November of 1980, the first Women's Pentagon Action march was held at the Pentagon and included experimental use of protest actions such as theatre, puppetry, and weaving demonstration. A similar march was held at the Pentagon in 1981.
The structure of the Women's Pentagon Action allowed for autonomous regional chapters, which organized joint projects with local organizations. In addition to participating in national rallies, the Boston Women's Pentagon Action, part of the Women's Educational Center in Cambridge, Massachusetts, partnered with local organizations to host protests, discussions, artistic events, and civil disobedience training sessions. In support of the 1983 anti-military Seneca Peace Encampment in New York, the Boston Women's Pentagon Action mobilized local activists to participate in the summer-long protest camp. In 1984, the Boston chapter took part in the national Women's Pentagon Action "Not in Our Name" protest on Wall Street. The rally was organized in an effort to expand the focus of the Women's Pentagon Action by targeting economic inequality. In 1986, the Boston Women's Pentagon Action disbanded and its assets were transferred to the Boston Women's Fund.